Seasons of India

One of the oldest civilizations in the world, India is a geographically diverse country with the highest mountain ranges, fragile ecosystems, rare species of flora and fauna, etc.

India is the 7th largest country by area in the world; with 28 states, 8 Union Territories, and having  2% landmass of the world, not all states have the same season.

You will find some variation in the seasons, but broadly they are the same.

The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) recognizes 4 official seasons of India:

Seasons of IndiaStarts Ends
Winter Season
Avg Temp. 10–15 °C
December April
Summer/Early Monsoon Season
Avg Temp. 32–40 °C
AprilJuly
Monsoon or Rainy Season
Avg Temp. 20–30 °C
JuneSeptember
Post-Monsoon or Autumn Season
Avg Temp. 25–34 °C
OctoberDecember

The ancient Hindu traditional scriptures have classified 6 seasons in India.

Seasons of IndiaStarts fromEnds
Shishir/Shita Ritu: Winter Season January February
Vasant Ritu: Spring Season March April
Grishma Ritu: Summer Season May June
Varsha Ritu: Monsoon Season July August
Sharad Ritu: Autumn Season September October
Hemant Ritu: Pre-Winter Season November December
Season of India

For the purpose of this understanding, let us understand the seasons of India as mentioned in the ancient text of India. As per the Hindu calendar, there are 6 seasons.

01. SHISHIR/ SHITA RITU: WINTER SEASON

The Shita season starts in January and ends in February. Different parts of India experience different temperatures, however, on average, it ranges between 5 to 25 degrees centigrade.

This season is characterized by cold winds, dryness, and snowfall.

Seasons of India

The 2 Hindu months of Magha and Phalguna are part of this season.  This is considered the most important part of the year as its harvest time, and festivals like Lohri, Pongal, Makar Sankranti, and Shivratri are celebrated during this time.

The word ‘Shishir’ is one of the many names for Lord Vishnu and is also mentioned in the ‘Vishnu Sahasranaam,’ which is the book mentioning 1000 names of Lord Vishnu.

The top 3 Places to Visit in India During Winter Seasons are :

  1. Gulmarg – This is a hill town in the northern state of India. It is transformed into a paradise on the arrival of Winter. The snow-covered landscape and the frozen lakes make it a perfect place for tourists looking for adventure sports like skiing and snowboarding. It also has cable car rides.
  2. Shimla – This is a famous holiday destination in North India for tourists who would like to experience snowfall. Shimla is the capital city of Himachal and is surrounded by hills and snow-covered forests, and has many snow sports.
  3. Gangtok –  is a unique hill station and a famous place for Honeymooners. You will find Buddhist pilgrims and trekkers coming here every year. Gangtok is rich with flora and fauna, high-altitude lakes, bright-colored monasteries, and mesmerizing views of the grand Himalayas.
  4. Other Places – Manali in Himachal Pradesh, Auli in Uttarakhand, Munnar and Wayanad in Kerala
Shishir Ritu Begins – December 21, 2021, Tuesday at 09:28 PM
Shishir Ritu Ends – February 18, 2022, Friday at 10:12 PM
Tropical Zodiac – Makara (Capricorn) & Kumbha (Aquarius)

02. VASANT RITU: SPRING SEASON

This is the most pleasant and colorful time of the year and lasts from March to April. Temperatures can peak in the afternoons to about 32 degrees Centigrade and go as low as 23 degrees centigrade at night. In addition to this, the days become longer than the nights.

Vasant Ritu is also referred to as ‘Rituraj,’ which means ‘King of all the Seasons’ as it marks the end of the cold winter season.

VASANT RITU: SPRING

According to the Hindu scriptures, Vasant Ritu occurs in the months of Chaitra and Baisakh.

People put their blankets and woolen clothes back into their closets and start wearing light cotton clothes.

You will see trees developing new leaves and blooming flowers. You can see birds chirping and colorful butterflies and bees hovering over flowers drinking their nectar.

Hindu festivals like Holi, Vasant Panchami, and Gudi Padwa are celebrated during this time of the year.

There is no particular place to visit during this time, and you can choose any destination as the climate is pleasant and beautiful all over India.

However, here are some places you can visit in India during the Spring Season :

  1. Yumthang Valley in Sikkim
  2. Gulmarg in the Himalayas
  3.  Ziro Vally in Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Ooty in Tamil Nadu
Vasant Ritu Begins – February 18, 2021, Thursday at 04:13 PM
Vasant Ritu Ends – April 20, 2021, Tuesday at 02:02 AM
Tropical Zodiac – Meena (Pisces) & Mesha (Aries)

03. GRISHMA RITU: SUMMER SEASON

This is the hottest time of the year when the temperature can climb up to even 38 degrees centigrade and falls between May and June.  The days are the longest and night is of shorter duration during Grishma Ritu.

As per the Hindu scriptures, Grishma Ritu occurs in Jyeshta and Aashaadha.  The word ‘Grishma’ is taken from the Sanskrit word ‘Grishmarutu,’ which means ‘summer.’

Seasons of India

The temperature during this time of the year is very hot, causing the water levels in Ponds, Wells, and rivers to go down.

It’s very uncomfortable during this time and going out makes you sweat or causes your skin to burn. This makes you feel very uncomfortable.

Grishma Ritu comes after Vasant Ritu, followed by Varsh Ritu, which is the rainy season.

People rely on coolers and air conditioners to cool their homes and drink Lassi, Lemon drink, fruit juices, cold drinks, etc to keep themself hydrated.

The Indian festival celebrated during the summer season are :

Guru Purnima –  This festival is celebrated on ‘Purnima’ or the full moon day. This is during the Hindu month of ‘Ashadha.’ This is also a day to pay respects to your Guru

Rath Yatra Rath Yatra is a famous festival celebrated in devotion to Lord Jagannath Temple, which is in Puri. The idols of the 3 deities i.e. Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra, and Goddess Subhadra, are taken out in a huge Chariot on the streets of Puri.

Three chariots of the deities with theShri Gundicha Temple for Ratha Yatra also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival puri Orissa-INDIA
3 chariots of the deities with the Shri Gundicha Temple for Ratha Yatra also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra, or Chariot festival puri.

Here are some places you can visit in India during the Summer Season :

  1. Coorg in Karnataka
  2. Ooty in Tamil Nadu
  3. Goa
  4. Wayanad in Kerala
  5. Rishikesh in Uttarakhand
Grishma Ritu Begins – April 20, 2021, Tuesday at 02:02 AM
Grishma Ritu Ends – June 21, 2021, Monday at 09:01 AM
Tropical Zodiac – Vrishabha (Taurus) & Mithuna (Gemini)

04. VARSHA RITU: MONSOON SEASON

The Varsha Ritu is a welcomed relief from the scoring heat experienced during the Grishma Ritu. The first shower of rain brings a pleasant feeling not just to us but to all living creatures.

The monsoon or rainy season lasts from June to September. However, it is at its peak during July and August.

The season begins with the humid southwest summer monsoon and slowly spreads across the country beginning by early June. South India generally receives more rainfall.

VARSHA RITU: MONSOON

Varsha Ritu last from July to August. As per the Hindu scriptures, the Vasha Ritu comes in the months of Shravana and Bhadrapada, which is also known as Sawan and Bhado.

During this season, the days are short, and nights are longer.

The temperature will fluctuate depending on the intensity of rains; however, the average temperate is around 28 degrees centigrade.

This is the time of the year when the complete landscape is covered with greenery, and you can see hills, mountains, gardens, open spaces, etc., all covered with a carpet of green plants and trees. Is a very pleasant sight.

This is also when water levels in ponds, wells, Rivers, Lakes, and catchment areas are restored. Some places in India receive excess rain and can be a cause for flooding and landslides.

The Hindu festivals like Onam, Krishna Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, and Raksha Bandhan are celebrated during Varsha Ritu.

Here are some places you can visit in India during the Summer Season :

  1. Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu
  2. Cherrapunji in Meghalaya
  3. Agumbe in Karnataka
  4. Shillong in Meghalaya
  5. Udaipur in Rajasthan
Varsha Ritu Begins – June 21, 2021, Monday at 09:01 AM
Varsha Ritu Ends – August 23, 2021, Monday at 03:04 AM
Tropical Zodiac – Karka (Cancer) & Simha (Leo)

05. SHARAD RITU: AUTUMN SEASON

The season of autumn in India comes during September and October. The Sharad Ritu (Autumn Season) comes in Ashwin and Kartik months as per the Hindu scriptures.

This is the time when the hot and humid climate starts disappearing, and you will see leaves falling off the trees, giving it the name fall season.

SHARAD RITU: AUTUMN

The dark clouds of the Mansoon season disappear, and the sky becomes clearer. You can now easily see the moon and the bright stars at night.

The muddy waters in Ponds, Wells, and Lakes start to become clean. Insects and other flies start disappearing during the Sharad Ritu.

The Sharad Ritu begins after the end of the monsoon or rainy season and stays till the beginning of the pre-winter season.  The average temperature during Sharad Ritu is 33 degrees centigrade, and days and nights are of equal lengths.

The Hindu festival of Navratri is celebrated during this time. This is a 9 days celebration when Hindus worship the 9 different forms of Goddess Shakti, which ends with  Vijayadashami (Dussera) when the effigy of Ravana is burnt all over India. This signified the victory of Good over Evil.

Here are some places you can visit in India during the Autumn Season :

  1. Kashmir
  2. Mysore in Karnataka
  3. Kalimpong in West Bengal
  4. The Great Himalayan National Park in Himachal Pradesh
Sharad Ritu Begins – August 23, 2021, Monday at 03:04 AM
Sharad Ritu Ends – October 23, 2021, Saturday at 10:20 AM
Tropical Zodiac – Kanya (Virgo) & Tula (Libra)

06. HEMANT RITU: PRE-WINTER

Hemant Ritu comes just before winter; therefore, it’s called Pre-Winter. This season starts in November and ends in December.

Hemant Ritu comes in the Agrahayana and Pausha (Agahan and Poos) months as per the Hindu scriptures. It begins with the end of October heat and lasts till the beginning of the winter season.

Hemant Ritu
Since it marks the advent of winter, the climate is moderately cold, and the average temperature is around 25 degrees centigrade.

Since it’s the transition time from autumn to the winter season, it is the most pleasant time of the year.

The days generally are shorter than nights during these months. Some parts of India would experience foggy and colder nights.

Hibiscus, Rose, Bougainvillea, Jasmine are the flower that blossoms during this season.

The Hindu festivals of Diwali and Bhai Dooj are celebrated during the Hemant Ritu. This is the time when children get their Diwali holidays from school and colleges, and people are seen traveling across countries. Many people come back to India to celebrate these holidays with their families.

Diwali is also known as the festival of lights, and you will see decorations and colorful items like stars, etc., hanging out of almost every house. If you are an international tourist, it is the best time to visit India.

Here are some places you can visit in India during the Pre-Winter Season :

  1. Shimla in Himachal Pradesh
  2. Manali in Himachal Pradesh
  3. Auli in Uttarakhand
  4. Munnar in Kerala
  5. Wayanad in Kerala
  6. Puducherry
Hemant Ritu Begins – October 23, 2021, Saturday at 10:20 AM
Hemant Ritu Ends – December 21, 2021, Tuesday at 09:28 PM

Tropical Zodiac – Vrishchika (Scorpio) & Dhanu (Sagittarius)

Conclusion – As per the Hindu calendar, India has 6 seasons. Namely: Shishir/Shita Ritu or Winter Season, Vasant Ritu or Spring Season, Grishma Ritu or Summer Season, Varsha Ritu or Monsoon Season, Sharad Ritu or Autumn season, and Hemant Ritu or Pre-Winter Season. All these seasons have a special mention in ancient Indian scriptures and festivals and food habits during this period have also been describing in the ancient Ayurvedic text which is followed even today.

Average temperatures in various Indian cities (°C)

Winter Summer Monsoon Post-monsoon Year-round  
(Dec – Feb) (Mar-May) (Jun-Sep) (Oct–Nov)  
City Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Min Avg Max Avg
Port Blair 23 26 28 25 27 29 25 27 27 25 26 28 27
Thiruvananthapuram 23 26 29 24 27 30 24 26 28 23 29 23 26
Bangalore 15 22 28 21 27 34 20 24 28 19 23 28 24
Nagpur 14 21 28 24 32 40 24 27 30 16 22 28 26
Bhopal 11 17 24 23 30 36 23 26 28 16 22 26 25
Guwahati 11 17 24 19 25 31 25 28 32 17 22 27 24
Kolkata 16 22 27 24 30 35 26 30 33 22 26 31 27
Lucknow 8 14 21 23 30 35 24 29 33 15 20 25 25
Siliguri 11 17 24 19 25 31 24 27 31 18 24 29 24
Jaisalmer 7 14 23 24 33 40 23 29 35 12 19 27 22
Dehradun 4 12 20 14 23 32 22 26 30 7 15 23 18
Amritsar 4 10 18 13 25 34 25 28 32 10 16 24 21
Shimla 1 5 9 10 14 18 15 18 20 7 10 13 13
Srinagar −2 4 6 7 14 19 16 22 30 1 8 16 13
Leh −13 −6 0 −1 6 12 10 16 24 −7 0 7 6
 

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